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One of the most applied, common-sense techniques is the TQM qualitative technique known as Root-Cause Analysis (RCA). RCA is typically expressed with the well-known Ishikawa (or Fishbone) diagrams. Even if useful, its inner qualitative nature (to stress the possible causes for an effect, after running a brainstorming and an affinity diagram) and the time to be spent for representing it could be some of the reasons why it's not particularly applied in organizations.

Thus, in order to overcome such limited usage of RCA, a proposal was initially done in 2006, in order to overcome the above mentioned limitations:
(1) adding a control measure at the end of each ‘cause bone’ can help decision-makers in their determination of corrective/improvement actions to take in terms of how much to introduce into the related action plan in the way of resources. The ISO 15939 Measurement Information Model can be the appropriate technique to help derive such measures, as it overcomes the intrinsic limitations of Orthogonal Defect Classification (ODC) by providing direct process improvement at CMMI ML2 on Measurement & Analysis (ME) and at ML3 on Organizational Process Focus (OPF), in particular taking care of the specific practice SP1.4 concerning the establishment of the organization’s measurement repository), as well as on the General Practice GP2.8 (Monitor & Control the Process) across all the process areas involved in each single cause-effect analysis.
(2) using an alternative way to express Ishikawa diagrams by Mind Maps, and how Mind Maps can facilitate the diffusion of RCA and its quantitative variant (Q-RCA) into organizations, and subsequently be used by organizations.

From RCA to Q-RCA

Publications Buglione L. & Abran A., Introducing Root-Cause Analysis and Orthogonal Defect Classification at Lower CMMI Maturity Levels, Proceedings of MENSURA 2006, Cadiz (Spain), November 6-8, 2006, ISBN 978-84-9828-101-9, pp. 29-40 click to download the paper Click to read the abstract Citations with Google Scholar
Publications Buglione L., Strengthening CMMI Maturity Levels with a Quantitative Approach to Root-Cause Analysis, Proceedings of the 5th Software Measurement European Forum (SMEF 2008), Milan (Italy), 28-30 May 2008, ISBN 9-788870-909999, pp. 67-82 click to download the paper Click to read the abstract Citations with Google Scholar

External References
External References Rene Braugarten, The SMPI model: A stepwise process model to facilitate software measurement process improvement along the measurement paradigms, Dr. Ing. Dissertation, University of Magdeburg (Germany), May 2007
External References Matalonga S., San Feliu Gilabert T., Linking Return on Training Investment with Defect Causal Analysis, Proceedings of the Twentieth International Conference on Software Engineering & Knowledge Engineering (SEKE'2008), San Francisco, CA, USA, July 1-3, 2008
External References Douglas John Buettner, Designing An Optimal Software Intensive System Acquisition: A Game Theoretic Approach, PhD Thesis, University of Southern California, September 2008
External References Matalonga S., San Feliu Gilabert T., Rus V., Automatic Defect Classification: An Experience Applying Natural Language Processing, Conferencia Latinoamericana de Informática (CLEI 2009). Pelotas, Brazil. Setiembre 2009. 

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